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Our faculty is of the opinion that reports providing information about genomic aberrations or exome profiles must include precise information regarding the sequencing technology and the analytic approach as well as information concerning the germline control if examined. The variant allele fraction should also be reported. However, other questions also remain. Should all affected individuals undergo a BM examination? Should management recommendations include avoidance of potential mutagenic events, such as smoking or radiation, in these cases?

These questions remain open and can only be addressed appropriately in forthcoming observational studies. Finally, an important question is whether and how health care systems will be able to pay for the investigations, referrals, follow-up evaluation and management. Although more and more prognostic variables have been identified in the context of MDS and the updated WHO classification [ 9 , 99 ] estimation of the clinical course and survival remains a clinical challenge.

Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS) patient discusses her treatment

In order to address this challenge, a number of different scoring systems have been developed in the past. Until , the IPSS served as a golden standard of prognostication [ - ]. This new score improves prognostication in individual patients with MDS.

Case Report ARTICLE

For example, it remains unknown whether the IPSS-R is useful in patients receiving interventional therapy or targeted drugs. In addition, there are other independent risk factors that need to be considered, such as red blood cell transfusion dependence or genetic and somatic aberrations [ 71 - 76 , ].

New Approaches to the Treatment of Myelodysplasia

Especially gene aberration profiles and MFC data may add in the predictive power of prognostic scoring systems. Therefore, molecular genetic and somatic aberrations and MFC-based aberration profiles should be validated and integrated in forthcoming refinements of the IPSS-R.

Table 6: Recurrent immunophenotypic abnormalities detected by flow cytometry in MDS. MDS, myelodysplastic syndromes. The increasing number of diagnostic and prognostic parameters and assays and the advent of new therapeutic approaches in MDS are major challenges in daily practice. Moreover, more and more patients are referred in whom a potential pre-phase of MDS is diagnosed but definitive criteria of MDS are not fulfilled.

Based on these developments, it is important to revisit and refine current diagnostic criteria and standards in MDS and to establish definitions and criteria for pre-MDS conditions. In the current article, we propose such definitions and criteria. In the emerging era of genome-medicine these criteria and the related terminologies may be of crucial importance and should assist in the evaluation of MDS and pre-MDS in daily practice. All co-authors contributed by establishing the concept, by participating in the pre-conference and post-conference discussion-phases, by actively participating in the Working Conference, by formulating consensus statements, by writing parts of the manuscript, and by correcting and approving the final version of the document.

We like to thank Sabine Sonnleitner, Julia Neusiedler-Nicolas, Emir Hadzijusofovic, and all other involved group members research group of Peter Valent for their excellent support in the organization of the Working Conference. The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest in this study and paper. Myelodysplastic syndrome. Annu Rev Med. Nimer SD.

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Myelodysplastic syndromes. Unraveling the molecular pathophysiology of myelodysplastic syndromes. J Clin Oncol. Giagounidis A, Haase D. Morphology, cytogenetics and classification of MDS.

Best Pract Res Clin Haematol. Proposals for the classification of the myelodysplastic syndromes. Br J Haematol. The chronic myeloid leukaemias: guidelines for distinguishing chronic granulocytic, atypical chronic myeloid, and chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia. Myelodysplastic Syndromes.


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Tumours of Haematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues. The revision of the World Health Organization WHO classification of myeloid neoplasms and acute leukemia: rationale and important changes. Impact of age and comorbidity in myelodysplastic syndromes. J Natl Compr Canc Netw. Somatic mutations and epigenetic abnormalities in myelodysplastic syndromes. Current state of prognostication and risk stratification in myelodysplastic syndromes. Curr Opin Hematol. Recurrent somatic TET2 mutations in normal elderly individuals with clonal hematopoiesis.

Pathobiology and Clinical Management, 2nd Edition

Nat Genet. Clonal hematopoiesis and blood-cancer risk inferred from blood DNA sequence. N Engl J Med. Clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential and its distinction from myelodysplastic syndromes. Definitions and standards in the diagnosis and treatment of the myelodysplastic syndromes: Consensus statements and report from a working conference.

Leuk Res. Valent P, Horny HP. Eur J Clin Invest. Ann Oncol. Steensma DP. Dysplasia has a differential diagnosis: distinguishing genuine myelodysplastic syndromes MDS from mimics, imitators, copycats and impostors. Curr Hematol Malig Rep. Valent P. Low blood counts: immune mediated, idiopathic, or myelodysplasia. Cytopenia levels for aiding establishment of the diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndromes.

Diagnostic value of histology and immunohistochemistry in myelodysplastic syndromes. Orazi A, Czader MB. Am J Clin Pathol. Standards and impact of hematopathology in myelodysplastic syndromes MDS. Two case studies of chronic idiopathic neutropenia preceding acute myeloid leukaemia. Malcovati L, Cazzola M. Clinicopathologic evaluation of cytopenic patients with isolated trisomy 8: a detailed comparison between idiopathic cytopenia of unknown significance and low-grade myelodysplastic syndrome.

Leuk Lymphoma. Idiopathic bone marrow dysplasia of unknown significance IDUS : definition, pathogenesis, follow up, and prognosis. Am J Cancer Res. Modelling the molecular circuitry of cancer. Nat Rev Cancer. Cancer stem cell definitions and terminology: the devil is in the details.

Age-related clonal hematopoiesis associated with adverse outcomes. Clonal haemopoiesis and therapy-related myeloid malignancies in elderly patients: a proof-of-concept, case-control study. Lancet Oncol. Preleukaemic clonal haemopoiesis and risk of therapy-related myeloid neoplasms: a case-control study. BMC Cancer. The myelodysplastic syndromes: morphology, risk assessment, and clinical management Int J Hematol.


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    Dysplastic erythroid precursors in the myelodysplastic syndromes and the acute myeloid leukemias: Is there biologic significance? How should blasts be counted? Tuzuner N, Bennett JM. Reference standards for bone marrow cellularity. Bone marrow cellularity in myeloid stem cell disorders: impact of age correction. Cellularity, characteristics of hematopoietic parameters and prognosis in myelodysplastic syndromes.

    Evolving New Treatment for Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    Eur J Haematol. QBEND10 for the diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndromes in routinely processed bone marrow biopsy specimens. J Clin Pathol.