Many poor rural areas lack any irrigation to store or pump water, resulting in fewer crops, fewer days of employment and less productivity. Both a lack of roads and insufficient irrigation systems result in greater Work Intensity in many rural communities. They found no direct evidence relating to the security impact of road infrastructure , and that only theoretical linkages of infrastructure development are discussed in studies. There are various direct and indirect channels through which transport infrastructure may affect security and peace building.
They agree that infrastructure programmes can potentially play three roles in a fragile context: as an engine of economic recovery and improved service provision, as part of a process of strengthening institutions, and in stabilisation and peace-building. They claim the state of evidence regarding these causal links is weak but some aspects of infrastructure development, including but not exclusive to road construction, has been shown to be effective in fragile country contexts.
Quick Impact has not yet proven to be effective in enhancing peace building and security in Fragile and Conflict Affected States.
- Services on Demand.
- The Gallic Wars: Caesars Firsthand Account of the Roman Conquest of Gaul;
- Rural poverty.
- The Journey of the Magi: Meanings in History of a Christian Story;
- Difference Equations, Special Functions and Orthogonal Polynomials: Proceedings of the International Conference: Munich, Germany 25-30, July 2005!
- The Essential Elizabeth Gaskell Collection (20 books) [Illustrated].
They found case studies show road development programmes can produce short-term employment opportunities in fragile and conflict affected regions particularly applying to programmes where rural road development is carried out through community-driven development or with special emphasis on inclusion through participatory methods. Evidence is mostly limited to number of hours of employment generated or individuals employed and include little rigorous impact evaluation.
There was also some evidence that rural road construction reduced isolation for minority groups and provided more opportunities for inclusion in wider economic activity. However, this evidence did not relate directly to reducing conflict or improving security. Poverty and isolation literature defines this as access to inputs and output markets, access to education and health services, and access to labour opportunities through which road access contributes to reduced poverty.
Context and Problems
Mostly qualitative evidence found suggests that rural road construction or maintenance has a positive impact on public service delivery. In general rural road development leads to improved access of both users and suppliers. This occurs due to a reduction in commuting time, as well transport costs but these benefits tend to accrue disproportionately to the influential and well-educated. Rural communities tend to ascribe great importance to road development and perceive it to improve access to markets, health and education facilities.
A lack of access to markets - whether due to poor infrastructure or productivity , limited education, or insufficient information - prevents access to both labor and capital. In many rural societies, there are few job opportunities outside of agriculture, often resulting in food and income insecurity due to the precarious nature of farming. Rural workers are largely concentrated in jobs such as owners-cultivators, tenant farmers, sharecroppers , informal care workers, agricultural day-laborers, and livestock herders.
International Rural Sociology Association - IRSA
Without access to other labor markets, rural workers continue to work for extremely low wages in agricultural jobs that tend to have seasonal fluctuations and thus little income security. In addition to labor, the rural poor often lack access to capital markets and financial institutions, hindering their ability to establish savings and obtain credit that could be used to purchase working capital or increase their supply of raw materials.
When coupled with scarce job opportunities, poor access to credit and capital perpetuates rural poverty. Numerous international development organisations have studied, reported, recommended and agreed that lack of mobility impedes human progress and development.
Yet there is very little evidence of anyone attempting to actually address and alleviate the problem by introducing handcarts and wheelbarrows into remote and rural areas where they would be most beneficial. In the United States , where rural poverty rates are higher and more persistent than in urban areas, rural workers are disadvantaged by lower wages and less access to better paying labor markets. Some macro-level economic changes have been associated with an increase in spatial inequalities. Moreover, the promotion of export-oriented agriculture has been linked to decreased food security for rural populations.
Inadequate education regarding health and nutritional needs often results in under-nutrition or malnutrition among the rural poor. Social isolation due to inadequate roads and poor access to information makes acquiring health care and affording it particularly difficult for the rural poor, resulting in worse health and higher rates of infant mortality.
There have been noted disparities in both Asia and Africa between rural and urban areas in terms of the allocation of public education and health services. A similar trend is found in access to neonatal care, as those living in rural areas had far less access to care than their urban counterparts. There are also far more malnourished children in rural areas of Africa than in urban areas. In Zimbabwe , for example, more than twice the share of children are malnourished in rural areas 34 percent rate of malnourishment than in urban areas 15 percent rate of malnourishment.
Inequality between urban and rural areas, and where rural poverty is most prevalent, is in countries where the adult population has the lowest amount of education. This was found in the Sahelian countries of Burkina Faso , Mali and Niger where regional inequality is 33 percent, In each of these countries, more than 74 percent of the adults have no education. Overall, in much of Africa, those living in rural areas experience more poverty and less access to health care and education.
Rural women are particularly disadvantaged, both as poor and as women. Access to land can alleviate rural poverty by providing households a productive and relatively reliable way to make an income. Achieving legislative reform and implementing redistributive policies, however, is a difficult task in many countries because land ownership is a sensitive cultural and political issue. Yet in China, for example, land redistribution policies have found some success and are associated with a reduction in rural poverty and increased agricultural growth.
It also involves allowing women to have separate tenancy rights and granting women the right to claim an equal share of family land and resources upon divorce , abandonment, widowhood , and for inheritance purposes. Improved infrastructure in Bangladesh increased agricultural production by 32 percent through its effect on prices and access to inputs and technology. Moreover, because of increased mobility among rural households, a rise in access to social services was noted, as well as an increase in overall health.
The most effective innovations are based on the active participation of small farmers, who are involved in both defining the problems and implementing and evaluating solutions. Smallholder technological developments have focused on processes such as nutrient recycling, integrated pest management, integration of crop agriculture and livestock, use of inland and marine water sources, soil conservation, and use of genetic engineering and biotechnology to reduce fertilizer requirements. Providing access to credit and financial services provides an entry point to improve rural productivity as well as stimulating small-scale trading and manufacturing.
Increased credit helps expand markets to rural areas, thus promoting rural development. The ability to acquire credit also combats systems of bonded or exploitative labor by encouraging self-employment. Credit policy is most effective when provided in conjunction with other services such as technology and marketing training. Agricultural diversification can provide rural families with higher income and greater food security. Policies related to diversification have also focused on crop rotation to increase productivity, as well as improving the production of traditional food crops such as cassava, cowpeas, plantains, and bananas rather than promoting the growth of more precarious cash crops.
We have a dedicated site for Germany. Editors: Bauer , Jean W. Many families eligible for government programs are unaware of them. The transition from welfare to work is made more difficult by not only the fewer employment opportunities, and the limited access to transportation and child care which keeps many who want to work locked in a catch of unemployment.
Rural Families and Work analyzes in context the issues and policies that have the greatest influence on rural employment. An overview of relevant theories provides a central starting point for discussion of work and its relationship to family and community well-being. Data from the Rural Families Speak project including interview transcripts from study participants illustrate the range of problems preventing rural families from finding and maintaining adequate employment. In addition, the book evaluates current proposals, pinpoints future directions for research and policy, and features discussion questions to help bring work-related issues into focus.
Among the topics examined in detail:. With its in-depth framework for understanding this complex subject, Rural Families and Work is a valuable text for family relations professors and students, and a solid reference for researchers studying social policy and the economics of the family. Bauer has authored more than research publications, including 39 journal articles and over 65 presentations at conferences or in the community. She understands public policy processes and can help to mold the content of the proposed project into information useful for classroom use.
International Rural Sociology Association
Bauer was member of the beginning RFS research team and wrote the initial proposal for the NC project in and chair for 2 years and was P. Dolan has been a member of the RFS research team for 12 years. She was the lead team member on the continuation proposal for the NC project. She works well with all the members of the research team and has been instrumental in many of the presentations for the RFS group in the past 6 years. She is often the coordinator of the ideas for journal articles, presentations, and positioning of the project. Dolan has authored more than 50 papers and made more than 70 presentations at conferences or in the community.